I’ve been trying to understand how Ubuntu will run within Windows 10. I’m still not quite sure I understand it all, but Dustin has the clearest explanation I’ve read so far:
“So maybe something like a Linux emulator?” Now you’re getting warmer! A team of sharp developers at Microsoft has been hard at work adapting some Microsoft research technology to basically perform real time translation of Linux syscalls into Windows OS syscalls. Linux geeks can think of it sort of the inverse of “wine” – Ubuntu binaries running natively in Windows. Microsoft calls it their “Windows Subsystem for Linux”. (No, it’s not open source at this time.)
The full post has many more details.